-----【譯文初稿】-----

二次大戰結束至今,已經走過了六十幾個年頭,當年慘遭納粹殺害,或是因反猶太情緒而被迫離開音樂界的作曲家,以及他們所創作的音樂,似乎隨著時間的流逝,即將被歷史遺忘。不過,一位美國指揮家
詹姆斯康隆(James Conlon),從去年起展開一項名為〝 找回音樂 (Recovered Voices)〞的演出,內容方面選用了作曲家維克多烏爾曼(Viktor Ullman)與亞歷山大策姆林斯基(Alexander Zemlinsky)的音樂作品,要讓樂迷們重新認識這兩位音樂家。

目前在洛杉磯歌劇院
(the Los Angeles Opera)擔任指揮的詹姆斯康隆說:「十五年前,我在德國古城科隆(Cologne)工作時,無意間接觸到策姆林斯基的音樂《D小調交響曲 - 美人魚(The Mermaid – Die Seejungfrau)》,一切就從這裡開始。這首交響曲,題材取自漢斯克里斯蒂安安徒生(Hans Christian Andersen)的童話故事。我敬仰策姆林斯基的大名長達二、三十年之久,不過就像生命中的其他許多事物一樣,往往與你擦身而過。」【shows 4

《小丑
("The Dwarf" (Der Zwerg))》與《破甕 ("The Broken Jug" (Der zerbrochene Krug) )》這兩齣全舞台獨幕歌劇,在二月份演出時獲得熱烈好評。舞台下的觀眾起初非常安靜,不過就在康隆放下指揮棒的那一刻,全場起立報以熱烈掌聲,而這樣的讚揚,對於策姆林斯基與維克多烏爾曼這兩位作曲家來說,來的太晚了。策姆林斯基死前默默無聞的在紐約街頭流浪,而且身無分文;至於維克多烏爾曼,則在奧斯威辛(Auschwitz)的毒氣室被殺害。

詹姆斯
康隆說:「我這麼做的目地,是因為古典樂必須被樂迷聽見,才得以存續。光知道有曲譜是不夠的,古典樂必須被聆聽、被演奏。所以我以這種方式讓大眾認識古典樂,如此一來人們就會聽到它,進而演奏它,而這些目前都已經發生了,對我而言,就是一種激勵。」【shows 6

歌劇《小丑》的故事內容,在描述一個其醜無比但品格高尚的小丑,被人當作生日禮物送給一位西班牙公主。小丑醜陋的外貌,讓公主心生反感。公主殘忍的強迫小丑照鏡子。第一次照鏡子的小丑,被鏡中自己的模樣嚇到,然後死了。對於小丑之死,公主只覺的損失了一個玩具,並沒有遺憾多久,隨後就返回生日宴會上跳舞。

策姆林斯基與古典音樂家馬勒
(Gustav Mahler)略有淵源,因為馬勒的妻子阿爾瑪是策姆林斯基著名的學生之一。據說歌劇《小丑》,是策姆林斯基根據自己矮短的身材與其貌不揚的外表而創作的。至於歌劇《破甕》,是捷克籍的烏爾曼,在被送往特雷辛集中營(Terezin)的兩年前,所寫的暗諷作品。當年的特雷辛集中營,納粹在那裏擱置了許多藝術家,用來作為證明納粹善待猶太人的偽證。烏爾曼在抵達特雷辛集中營不久後,就被送到奧斯威辛,然後死在奧斯威辛的毒氣室裡。

詹姆斯
康隆說:「最大的挑戰在於如何讓聽眾接受這兩位作曲家的音樂。為什麼呢?因為樂迷不會去欣賞自己所不熟悉的作品。因此,首先讓人們熟悉作者的姓名,然後進而去認識他們的音樂。我深信如果能這樣持續下去,這些德國古典樂界的重要音樂家,將會與現代樂迷產生聯繫。」【shows 8

名為〝
找回音樂 (Recovered Voices)〞的藝術演出,在三月八日畫下完美休止符。




※ 正式定稿與影像:「新唐人電視台 ─ 娛樂新幹線177




※ The original article was taken from Reuters Website.  ( 原文取自路透社網站 )




-----【原文對照】-----


INTRO: The Los Angeles Opera "recovers" voices of composers lost in the Holocaust. The Los Angeles Opera is performing works by relatively unknown composers Alexander Zemlinsky and Viktor Ullmann as part of an ongoing program called "Recovered Voices," which showcases operas written by composers silenced by the Nazi Party during World War II. 


STORY: More than 60 years after the end of World War II, an American conductor is trying to restore the lost music of the Holocaust and its composers before history forgets. Los Angeles Opera conductor James Conlon last year started a program called "Recovered Voices" designed to introduce operagoers to a lost generation of composers. The current program consists of works by composers Viktor Ullman and Alexander Zemlinsky, whom Conlon stumbled upon by chance while working as a conductor in Germany fifteen years ago.

"I became acquainted with the music of Alexander Zemlinsky(
亞歷山大策姆林斯基) about fifteen years ago while I was in Germany, working in Cologne(德國古城科隆). "The Mermaid – Die Seejungfrau,( D小調交響曲 - 美人魚》.)" which is based on Hans Christian Andersen(漢斯·克里斯蒂安·安徒生), and that started it all. I had always known Zemlinsky's name, for twenty-five, thirty years, but like many other things in life you walk right past it" says James Conlon(詹姆斯康隆), Music Director for the Los Angeles Opera. 

Two fully staged one-act operas, "The Dwarf" (Der Zwerg) and "The Broken Jug" (Der zerbrochene Krug) opened to rave reviews in February. The audience's initial silence, after Conlon put down his baton, quickly turned to applause and an extended standing ovation. The acclaim came too late for their respective composers, Alexander Zemlinsky, who died broke and forgotten in a New York exile, and Viktor Ullman(
維克多烏爾曼), who was killed in a gas chamber at Auschwitz.

"My purpose is to put it out there because classical music lives by being heard. It's not enough to know that it exists on a manuscript on a shelf, it has to be heard, it has to be integrated, it has to be listened to, it has to be played, and it grows slowly in that manner. So, my purpose is to get as much of it in front of the public and in front of musicians so that of their own accord, other people will listen to it, will want to perform it, and that's already happening, so that's very encouraging to me."

"The Dwarf" is the tale of an ugly but noble dwarf given as a birthday gift to a Spanish princess, who considers him her toy. She is repulsed by his looks and cruelly forces him to look into a mirror for the first time. Horrified at his reflection, he dies. She momentarily regrets the loss of her "toy," but returns to her birthday party dance.

Zemlinsky, once a prominent member of Gustav Mahler's circle, is said to have fashioned the 1921 work because of his own short stature and homely looks.
By contrast, the Ullman piece is a light satire written by the Czech composer two years before he was sent to the Terezin "showplace" concentration camp where the Nazis used artists as proof that the Jews were being treated well. He was later shipped to Auschwitz. 

"The big challenge is to get people to come to it, why? Because people don't come when they don't know a name. So part of my purpose is also to put those names out there so people begin to become familiar with the name, and then the story, and all of that so that they become familiar with the music. I'm totally convinced that these composers, who belong to the center of the great German tradition will be fully integrated if this continues on for a generation."
shows 8

Holocaust, but anti-semitism cut short their careers. The current "Recovered Voices" program ends Saturday (March 8).




 


arrow
arrow
    全站熱搜

    pa701009 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()